Коста, Лусио — Википедия
1. Коста (фамилия) – Costa, sometimes da Costa or Da Costa, is an Italian, Portuguese, Galician, Spanish and Catalan surname. Because of colonization and immigration, it is found throughout Latin America, being common in Brazil. It is also a chosen by Jews, due to Roman Catholic conversions. There is also an unrelated Lebanese Costa surname, in Italy, Portugal, Galicia and Catalonia it is derived from the Latin word COSTA, rib, which has come to mean slope, coast, in Romance languages. In the rest of Spain it comes from Catalonia or from Galicia, being the Spanish equivalent Cuesta
2. Бразилия – Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Unasul, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast. In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes also called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama
3. 1902 год – As of the start of 1902, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 The first college bowl game, the Rose Bowl between Michigan and Stanford, is held in Pasadena, California. Nurses Registration Act 1901 comes into effect in New Zealand, making it the first country in the world to require registration of nurses. On January 10, Ellen Dougherty becomes the worlds first registered nurse, January 12 – Uddevalla Suffrage Association is officially dissolved. January 23 – A snowstorm at Mount Hakkoda, northern Honshu, Japan, January 28 – The Carnegie Institution is founded in Washington, D. C. with a $10 million gift from Andrew Carnegie. February 9 – Fire levels 26 city blocks of Jersey City, february 11 – Police and universal suffrage demonstrators are involved in a physical altercation in Brussels. February 15 – The Berlin U-Bahn underground is opened, february 18 – U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt prosecutes the Northern Securities Company for violation of the Sherman Act. February 27 American writer John Steinbeck is born, australian officers Breaker Morant and Peter Handcock are executed for the murder of Boer prisoners of war near Louis Trichardt. March 6 – Real Madrid C. F. is founded as Madrid Football Club, march 7 – Second Boer War, South African Boers win their last battle over the British Army, with the capture of a British general and 200 of his men. March 8 – Jean Sibeliuss Second Symphony is premiered in Helsinki, march 10 – A Circuit Court prevents Thomas Edison from having a monopoly on motion picture technology. April 2 – Electric Theatre, the first movie theater in the United States, april 13 – A new car speed record of 74 mph is set in Nice, France, by Léon Serpollet. April 19 – The 7.5 Mw Guatemala earthquake shakes Guatemala with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII, may 5 – The Commonwealth Public Service Act creates Australias Public Service. May 13 – Alfonso XIII of Spain begins his reign, may 20 – Cuba gains independence from the United States. May 22 – The White Star Liner, SS Ionic, is launched, may 29 – Lord Rosebery opens London School of Economics. May 31 – The Treaty of Vereeniging ends the Second Boer War, june 2 – The Anthracite Coal Strike begins in the United States. June 15 – The New York Central Railroad inaugurates the 20th Century Limited passenger train between Chicago and New York City, june 16 – Australia, Female British subjects win the vote with the Uniform Franchise Act. June 17 – Norwich City Football Club is formed, june 26 – Edward VII institutes the Order of Merit. July 5 – Erik Gustaf Boström returns as Prime Minister of Sweden, july 8 – Service of Reclamation within U. S. Geological Survey
4. Тулон – Toulon is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur region, Toulon is the capital of the Var department, the Commune of Toulon has a population of 165,514 people, making it the fifteenth-largest city in France. It is the centre of an area with 559,421 inhabitants. Toulon is the fourth-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast after Marseille, Nice, Toulon is an important centre for naval construction, fishing, wine making, and the manufacture of aeronautical equipment, armaments, maps, paper, tobacco, printing, shoes, and electronic equipment. The military port of Toulon is the naval centre on Frances Mediterranean coast, home of the French Navy aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle. The French Mediterranean Fleet is based in Toulon, archaeological excavations, such as those at the Cosquer Cave near Marseilles, show that the coast of Provence was inhabited since at least the Paleolithic era. The Ligurians settled in the beginning in the 4th century BC. In the 2nd century BC, the residents of Massalia called upon the Romans to help pacify the region. The Romans defeated the Ligurians and began to start their own colonies along the coast, Toulon harbour became a shelter for trading ships, and the name of the town gradually changed from Telo to Tholon, Tolon, and Toulon. Toulon was Christianized in the 5th century, and the first cathedral built, honoratus and Gratianus of Toulon, according to the Gallia Christiana, were the first bishops of Toulon, but Louis Duchesne gives Augustalis as the first historical bishop. He assisted at councils in 441 and 442 and signed in 449 and 450 the letters addressed to Pope Leo I from the province of Arles, a Saint Cyprian, disciple and biographer of St. Cæsarius of Arles, is also mentioned as a Bishop of Toulon. His episcopate, begun in 524, had not come to an end in 541, in 1095, a new cathedral was built in the city by Count Gilbert of Provence. As barbarians invaded the region and Roman power crumbled, the town was attacked by pirates. In 1486 Provence became part of France and his Italian campaign failed, and 1497, the rulers of Genoa, who controlled commerce on that part of the Mediterranean, blockaded the new port. However, a few months later the commander of the new fort sold it to the commander of an Army of the Holy Roman Empire, in 1543, Francis I found a surprising new ally in his battle against the Holy Roman Empire. He invited the fleet of Ottoman Admiral Barbarossa to Toulon as part of the Franco-Ottoman alliance, the residents were forced to leave, and the Ottoman sailors occupied the town for the winter. This fleet carried aboard an army of 8,000 infantry and 800 cavalry and its baggage under Thomas of Savoy, king Louis XIV was determined to make France a major sea power. In 1660, his Minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert ordered Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban to build a new arsenal and to fortify the town
5. 1998 год – 1998 was designated as the International Year of the Ocean. January 2 – Russia begins to circulate new rubles to stem inflation, January 4 – Wilaya of Relizane massacres of 4 January 1998 in Algeria, Over 170 are killed in 3 remote villages. January 6 – The Lunar Prospector spacecraft is launched into orbit around the Moon, January 8 – Ramzi Yousef is sentenced to life in prison for planning the first World Trade Center bombing in 1993. January 11 – Over 100 people are killed in the Sidi-Hamed massacre in Algeria, January 12 – Nineteen European nations agree to forbid human cloning. January 14 – Ralph Guarino is arrested for attempting to rob a Bank of America bank in the World Trade Center. January 17 – The Drudge Report breaks the story about U. S. President Bill Clintons alleged affair with Monica Lewinsky, January 20 – Nepalese police intercept a shipment of 272 human skulls in Kathmandu. January 22 – Suspected Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski pleads guilty, and accepts a sentence of life without the possibility of parole, January 28 Gunmen hold at least 400 children and teachers hostage for several hours, at an elementary school in Manila, Philippines. Stade de France, as well for sports venues of France, officially opened in Saint-Denis, suburb of Paris. February 3 – Cavalese cable car disaster, a United States military pilot causes the deaths of 20 people near Trento, Italy, february 4 – The 5.9 Mw Afghanistan earthquake shakes the Takhar Province with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII. With 2,323 killed, and 818 injured, damage is considered extreme, february 7–22 – The 1998 Winter Olympics are held in Nagano, Japan. February 16 – China Airlines Flight 676 crashes into an area near Chiang Kai-shek International Airport. February 28 – A massacre in Likoshane, FR Yugoslavia starts the Kosovo War, march 1 – Titanic becomes the first film to gross US$1 billion. March 2 Data sent from the Galileo probe indicates that Jupiters moon Europa has an ocean under a thick crust of ice. In Austria, Natascha Kampusch is abducted by Wolfgang Přiklopil, march 5 – NASA announces that the Clementine probe orbiting the Moon has found enough water in polar craters to support a human colony and rocket fueling station. March 11 – Danish parliamentary election,1998, Prime Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussen is re-elected, march 13 – The High-Z Supernova Search Team becomes the first team to publish evidence that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. March 23 – The 70th Academy Awards ceremony, hosted for the 6th time by Billy Crystal, is held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, Titanic wins 11 Oscars including Best Picture. March 24 – First Computer-assisted Bone Segment Navigation, performed at the University of Regensburg, march 26 – Oued Bouaicha massacre in Algeria,52 people are killed with axes and knives,32 of the killed are babies under the age of 2. March 27 – Sildenafil, sold as Viagra and developed by Pfizer, is approved as the first oral treatment for erectile dysfunction in the USA by the Food, march 31 – Netscape released Mozilla source code under an open source license
6. Рио-де-Жанейро – Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazils third-most populous state. Part of the city has designated as a World Heritage Site, named Rio de Janeiro. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, later, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822 and this is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, the home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data. The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the city is divided into 33 administrative regions. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabrals fleet, allegedly the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition. The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri, Botocudo, in 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Consequently, Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony, Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay. Until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several, mostly French, pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc, on 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. The kingdoms capital was transferred to the city, which, thus, as there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived suddenly, many inhabitants were simply evicted from their homes. The first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, from the colonial period until the first independent decades, Rio de Janeiro was a city of slaves. There was an influx of African slaves to Rio de Janeiro, in 1819. In 1840, the number of slaves reached 220,000 people, the Port of Rio de Janeiro was the largest port of slaves in America. As a political center of the country, Rio concentrated the political-partisan life of the Empire and it was the main stage of the abolitionist and republican movements in the last half of the 19th century. Rio continued as the capital of Brazil after 1889, when the monarchy was replaced by a republic, until the early years of the 20th century, the city was largely limited to the neighbourhood now known as the historic city centre, on the mouth of Guanabara Bay. Expansion of the city to the north and south was facilitated by the consolidation and electrification of Rios streetcar transit system after 1905, though many thought that it was just campaign rhetoric, Kubitschek managed to have Brasília built, at great cost, by 1960
7. Федеральный университет Рио-де-Жанейро – The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro or University of Brazil is a public university in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. UFRJ is the largest federal university in the country and is one of the Brazilian centers of excellence in teaching, in 2015 the Ranking Universitário Folha ranked UFRJ as the second best university in Brazil and the best Federal University in the country. Its history and identity are closely tied to the Brazilian ambitions of forging a modern, competitive, the university is located mainly in Rio de Janeiro, with ramifications spreading to other ten cities. UFRJ is one of the culprits in the formation of the Brazilian intellectual elite, contributing significantly to build not only the history of Rio de Janeiro. The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro is direct descendent of Brazils first higher education courses, created on September 7,1920 by president Epitácio Pessoa through the Law Decree 14343, the institution was initially named University of Rio de Janeiro. Its history, however, is much vaster and parallel to that of the cultural, economic. In its inception, the university was composed by the Escola Politécnica, to these initial units many others were progressively added, such as the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes and the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia. Due to the tradition of its pioneering courses, the university functioned as the scholar mill upon which most of Brazils subsequent higher education institutions were molded. In 1937, Getúlio Vargass minister of education, Gustavo Capanema, announced a reform of the education system, the change reflected the governments aim of controlling the quality of the national higher education system - mainly by setting a standard by which all other universities would have to conform. International interexchange and partnerships are profuse, leading to reformist tendencies that most of times successfully coexist with the strong traditional ties. The request was deferred, so it is correct to address the university by either names, the university manages an ambitious program for extension courses, consisting mostly in providing full-time education to financially debilitated non-students of varying education backgrounds. In 2010, the institution achieved a good evaluation and a maximum score in the Ministry of Educations General Index of College Courses. Its clear emphasis on research alludes to the motto of one of its most famous and distinguished scientists, In a university. The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro is an autarchy and a public institution linked to the Ministry of Education, the institution is also directed by a vice-rector and six other pro-rectors. The rectors are nominated and chosen by the Ministry of Education from a three-candidate list formed by an election every four years. In general, the MEC respects the decision, choosing the most voted candidate. The current rector is Carlos Antônio Levi da Conceição, with Antônio José Ledo Alves da Cunha as vice-rector, according to its yearly statistical report, the university controls 52 units and supplementary departments, each linked to one of six academic centers. It has a total of 48454 active undergraduate students plus 7333 students in online courses
8. Париж – Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is also a rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are also pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
9. Нью-Йорк – The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Самые знаменитые игроки чемпионата Индии
Опубликовано: 08.02.2018 | Автор: Милован
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Лусио Марсал Феррейра Рибейро Лима Коста (порт. Lcio Maral Ferreira Ribeiro Lima Costa, 27 февраля 1902, Тулон — 13 июня 1998, Рио-де-Жанейро).
Лусио Коста Lúcio Marçal Ferreira Ribeiro Lima Costa Фотография. Смотреть что такое "Коста, Лусио" в других словарях.
Лусио Коста - Человек, который нарисовал Бразилиа - Газета "Коммерсантъ" - Издательский Дом КоммерсантЪ.
В Википедии есть статьи о других людях с фамилией Коста. Лусио Коста Lúcio Marçal Ferreira R.
Победу одержал архитектор Лусио Коста - друг и учитель Оскара Нимейера. Идея Косты была с одной стороны тривиальна, а с другой необычна.